Qur`an:

2:184. O ye who believe ! fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may guard against evil.

2:185. The prescribed fasting is for a fixed number of days, but whoso among you is sick or on a journey, shall fast the same number of other days; and for those who are able to fast only with great difficulty, is an expiation – the feeding of a poor man. And whoso does good of his own accord it is better for him. And fasting is good for you, if you only knew.

2: 186 The month of Ramadan is that in which the Qur’an was sent down as a guidance for mankind with clear proofs of guidance and discrimination.

Hadith:

“With the arrival of Ramadan, the doors of Heaven are opened up and the doors of Hell are closed shut and satans are locked in chains.” (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Fasting)

“Whoever does not refrain from lying and acting upon it during fasting, what is the need of Allah that he refrains from eating or drinking?” (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Fasting)

“Fasting is not just refraining from eating and drinking, but it also involves refraining from all vulgar and indecent talks. Thus, O one fasting! If someone swears at you or entices you with anger, tell him that I am fasting. Whosoever swears and involves in vulgar talk while fasting, then his fasting only involves starving and being thirsty, which will not benefit him a thing.” (Musnad Darmi with reference to Miskhat)

“Every act of a person is for himself, but fasting is for Me. That is why I will be its reward.” (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Fasting)

“By the Being in whose hands is the life of Muhammadsa! The odour from the mouth of a person fasting is more beloved and pure than that of musk.” (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Fasting)

“Whoever wakes up in the middle of the night, out of the demands of faith and with the intention of reward, and offers prayers and fasts, his previous sins are forgiven.” (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Fasting)

`Abdullah ibn `Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah (saw), said: “The fast and the Qur’an are two intercessors for the servant of Allah on the Day of Resurrection. The fast will say: ‘O Lord, I prevented him from his food and desires during the day. Let me intercede for him.’ The Qur’an will say: ‘I prevented him from sleeping at night. Let me intercede for him.’ And their intercession will be accepted.” [Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal]

Ibn ‘Abbas narrates, saying, “The Messenger of Allāh (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was the most generous person, and he would be at his most generous in Ramadan because Jibril would come to him every night and he would study the Qur’an with him. Truly, when Allāh’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) would meet Gabriel, he would be more generous than a fleeting wind.” [Agreed Upon]

“Jibril used to revise the Qur’an with me once every year, but this year he has revised it with me twice. I do not suspect but that my time has come. And you shall be the first of my household to join me.” (Sahih Bukhari)

“Whoever does not have the intention to fast before morning has no fast.” (Sunan Tirmidhi, Book of Fasting)

“A Fast is only considered valid for that person who has made a strong intention to fast before Fajr.” (Sunan Tirmidhi, Book of Fasting)

“Eat Sehri for there are blessings in eating Sehri.” (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Fasting)

“As long as people hasten in opening their fast, they will continue to receive the blessings and betterment thereof.” (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Fasting)

“The Jews and the Christians delay the opening of their fast. Muslims should not do this.” (Ibn Majah, Book of Fasting)

“As soon as there is darkness in the East and the day moves towards the West, and the sun disappears in the horizon, a person fasting should open his fast.” (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Fasting)

“Abi Aufaara says that I was once with Huzoorsa on a journey. After sunset, Huzoorsa told someone to bring something to open the fast with. The person told Huzoorsa to wait a little while till it gets darker. Huzoorsa said to bring the food. The person again answered that there is still light. Huzoorsaagain said to bring the food. The person brought the food and after opening the fast Huzoorsa said that after sunset when you see darkness rising from the east, then open your fast. Do not look to the west to see if light has vanished or not.” (Sahih Muslims, Book of Fasting)

“When one wants to open a fast he should open it with a date because there are blessings in it. If this is not available then open it with water because it is a thing very pure.” (Sunan Tirmidhi, Book of Fasting)

“Whoever prepares the Iftaari, he will get the same reward as for fasting, but there will be no loss in reward for the one who fasted.” (Sunan Tirmidhi, Book of Fasting)

“Whoever leaves a fast of Ramadan without any excuse, even if he fasts the rest of his life in exchange for the missed fast, he will not be able to make up for it nor will he be able to expiate the mistake.” (Musnad Darmi)

“If a person who isfasting forgetfully eats or drinks, he should not become worried. This was a provision which Allah gave to him. He does not need to make up for the fast or offer any expiation.” (Dar Qutni, Book of Fasting)

Hazrat Khalifatul Masih I (ra):

“One who leaves his things for Allah during fasting – the things that are not a crime nor against the law to do so – by this he becomes habitual in not using others’ things wrongfully and does not look at them. So, when he leaves lawful things for the sake of Allah like this, then his gaze cannot ever go towards anything unlawful.” (Al-Fazl, 17th December 1966)

Hazrat Musleh Mau`ud (ra):

“The purpose of fasting is not merely starvation. If you could reach Heaven through this, then even disbelievers and hypocrites would be ready to do so in this way. This is not hard. In reality what is hard is the moral and spiritual change. Even prisoners begin hunger strikes. Even Brahmans stop eating when they are not listened to. The purpose of Ramadan is to leave everything for Allah and to be ready to leave everything for Him. Fasting is a symbol that one can leave every right for Allah, like eating, drinking, conjugal relations, etc. Ramadan should not come and go while one is still pondering over how one can leave his rights.” (Abridged translation from Al-Fazl, 30th March 1962)

“There are four roots to the ways eveil actions are borne and the rest are their roots. They are: 1. Eating, 2. Drinking, 3. Lust, 4. Desire to refrain from actions. Fasting stops all of these things. Fasting allows one to earn blessings instead of being dishonest, as in worldly things. The needs because of which one involves himself in sin, these needs are temporarily stopped through fasting in Ramadan.” (Abridged translation from Al-Fazl, 17th December, 1966)

“In my opinion, there are some people who take fasting as something minor and leave it due to small things or excuses. Due to the mere thought that they will become sick, they leave fasting. This is no excuse to leave fasting because of the fear that they will become sick. One can leave fasting only in the condition that he is sick and sick to the extent that fasting is harmful. To leave a fast due to a sickness which is not affected by fasting is not acceptable.” (Al-Fazl, 11th April 1925)

“Intention is necessary for fasting. Without it, there is no reward. Intention is from the heart. One is allowed to eat and drink till he sees light from the East. If one takes precautions and later he is told that light had already come out, his fast will still be valid. The time between the Holy Prophet’s (sa) eating of food and Fajr prayers was equal to that of reciting 50 verses.” (Al-Fazl, 28th July 1914)

 

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